Zen and Meditation

Master Dogen Quote


A century ago, psychologists and other scientists struggled to realize how meditation practice benefited the mind or the body. The main picture was far from being accomplished. Luckily, we were graced with the existence of Carl Gustav Jung, who not only deciphered archetypes and the collective unconscious (among so many other concepts), but also gave a rather accurate description of how the meditation process helps us achieve a better understanding of ourselves and our environment.

He determined that everyone had “disposable” psychic energy, whose latent powers lay dormant in the unconscious, and there they will be used in order to manage each and every conflict our mind and brain determine as such. Now, the interesting part is what happens when conflicts are solved. Then this psychic energy could be liberated and rechanneled. Now it could revitalize novel regions of the psyche. At least at this descriptive level we can imagine how once-wasted psychic energies might become available for more selfless behaviors, including compassion.


In 1980 some scientists already had a glimpse of the specific mechanisms of how this is accomplished, Dr. Deane Shapiro mentioned that with the removal or minimization of cognitive stimuli and generally increasing awareness, meditation can therefore influence both the quality (accuracy) and quantity (detection) of perception. And Brown, Forte and Dysart also point to this as a possible explanation of the phenomenon: “[the higher rate of detection of single light flashes] involves quieting some of the higher mental processes which normally obstruct the perception of subtle events.”

Until not so far ago, meditation was an implicitly forbidden subject of scientific research. The underlying and usually hidden philosophical assumptions of traditional, rationalist science do not value the intuitive. They do not acknowledge the reality of the transcendent or subscribe to the concept of higher states of consciousness, let alone, in the strictest sense, even admit to the possible existence of unconscious forces active in cognitive acts of perception. Not properly acknowledging this fact, we are neglecting our own core.

That being said, meditation techniques have been difficult to measure. A key hindrance that makes any subject of study regarding this areas or any other involving mind or consciousness is the fact that our individual brains show different psychophysiological responses, or that religious experiences affect individuals in different ways. As Jung said: It is not that something different is seen, but that one sees differently. It is as though the spatial act of seeing were changed by a new dimension.

So, a given range of stimuli does arouse some persons more than others. The same input has different reaction depending on each one of us. There also are clear differences in brain function among different personality types. In one EEG study, realized by K. Thatcher, W. Wiederholt, and R. Fischer, the baseline brain waves of subjects classified as extroverts were higher in amplitude than those of the introverts.


brain emoticons



Existing research on meditation has other limitations. One is crucial: no physiological or biochemical measurements can define the precise subjective quality of the meditator’s private state of awareness at any one moment, let alone sequentially.

But from now on all is good news. There are lots of scientific studies towards meditation. Many reviews have now clarified what kinds of changes meditation produces in the body. The consensus: meditation causes secondary physiological and biochemical changes that are appropriate to how much relaxation is involved.


The relaxation response is a common term used to determine these changes. This term was developed by Herbert Benson and he thought of it as an antagonistic of the fight or flight response (this one activated by the sympathetic system). It means being physically relaxed and mentally alert at the same time. Transcendental Meditation researchers even go further and think of the relaxation response as a hypometabolic parasympathetic fourth stage of consciousness.

Dr. James H Austin is an American neurologist and author. He is the author of the book Zen and the Brain, among others. He establishes links between the neurophysiology of the human brain and the practice of meditation, and won the Scientific and Medical Network Book Prize for 1998. Dr. Austin has been a practicing Zen Buddhist since 1974. After eight years of regular Zen meditation, Austin experienced the taste of what Zen practice calls kenshō. The chief characteristic of this experience was a loss of the sense of “self” which is so central to human identity, plus a feeling that “Just This” is the way all things really are in the world. His publications number over 140 articles involving research in the areas of clinical neurology, neuropathology, neurochemistry and neuropharmacology.

Austin’s books are a great compilation of the study of many different meditation techniques. His personal theories will further acknowledge two facts:

1. that our two hemispheres have complementary functions

2. that they engage in subtle dialogues across the subcortical bridge. This means that split-brain patients (wherever the corpus callosum, the hemispheres connector is severed) still have some level of communication between the hemispheres that explain the appearance of complex emotions.

Dr. Deane H. Shapiro is Professor Emeritus at the Psychiatry & Human Behavior School of Medicine, in Stanford University. His research involved developing a theory of human control, a psychological test to measure a person’s control profile (the Shapiro Control Inventory Manual), and a specific therapeutic approach (Control Therapy) to match the most effective strategies to a person’s particular control profile.

So, among his many pages and pages of research, now I will just focus on his findings regarding brain plasticity on meditation subjects, and these findings are:

changes in the bioelectrical brain pattern

– metabolic activation of specific brain areas

– cognitive functions supported by idiosyncratic neural networks, and

– neuroimaging studies showing measurable increases in several brain structures.


This is another scientist that has proven how meditation literally changes and shifts the brain.



Leonard Cohen. Source: Cordon


The early Indian Buddhists summarized their meditative approach back in the fifth century. One general pathway was the direct route of insight meditation, Vipassana. The other was the route of calming meditation, Samatha. The latter began with a calm serenity, developed into one-pointed concentration, and finally shifted into the full meditative absorptions of samadhi.

Embedded in the word Zen is the story of how it evolved over the centuries. Its meditative techniques stemmed from ancient yoga practices. At that time, in India, the Sanskrit word for meditation was dhyana. This evolved into the phrase Ch’an-Na, then into the Chinese word Ch’an. Later, Buddhist monks transplanted this Ch’an form of meditation to Japan, where the Japanese pronounced it Zen. Zen, then, stands for the school of Buddhism that emphasized meditation and that evolved further as it spread from India, to China, and to Japan. Zazen is its system of meditation.

Zen is a comprehensive Way of spiritual development, one of its effects are brain modifications through the detection and shift of mind processes, therefore literally reshaping the anatomy of the brain. Controlling the mind we can customize the way our brain perceives things, and as default it always drives this perception towards a clearer understanding of ourselves and others.

Zen uses various approaches to reshape the input to the Ego, to defuse it, and to redeploy its output. Master Dogen also commented on the several steps through which the aspirant passed on the long road to experiencing the objective world. The steps begin, he said, in the quiet meditative context of no-thought, and then proceed to the letting go of self.

In Zen, the brain resolves an existential impasse. In this context, one calls it “enlightenment” or “awakening,” kensho or satori. It is also termed “insightwisdom” or “seeing into one’s true nature.” The two intuitive processes are similar in form if not in content and degree.

The Zen meditative way presents several potential advantages. It proceeds very slowly, voluntarily, legally. It acts spontaneously from the inside, discretely. Overall, the meditative mental landscape is much calmer, clearer. Nerve cells will have been liberated from much of their usual irrelevant synaptic clutter. Dr. James Austin emphasizes the shift in terms of respiration, where experienced monks have somehow longer expiration periods, also needing less volume of oxygen per minute. Whenever we breathe more quietly and prolong the phase of expiration, we are probably quieting the firing activity of many nerve cells, both in the medulla and above.

Buddhist meditative chants are themselves associated with enhanced, rhythmic, synchronous theta activity. The theta range is associated with recall, fantasy, imagery, creativity, planning, dreaming, switching thoughts, deep meditation, drowsiness, access to subconscious images, reduced blood pressure, and more.


There exists so much information implying that meditation techniques enhance the so-called Relaxation Response. It’s clear that the practice of meditation literally raises awareness, well-being and several physiologic markers linked to a hypometabolic state of combined physical relaxation and mental awareness.

Finally, and perhaps most important from the standpoint of basic science, investigation has moved from the level of gross physiology to more detailed points of biochemistry and the voluntary control of internal states. From a philosophical standpoint, these studies have also raised a number of issues about the role of spiritual experiences in both psychology and medicine.

It took me a long time to understand why Buddhists say that when you meditate you do it not only for your own sake, but also for the sake of all living beings……to me it seemed sooo new-age. I mean, in what way will the planet be better if I sit for 30 minutes? Now I realize that one should only start working on oneself, and then afterwards can achieve working for and helping others. Also, if I am peaceful and calm (which happens generally when doing active meditation) the people around me feel that, even though sometimes they can’t express it, and if along me there is someone else that also has this characteristics, then the effect is stronger, and so on and so forth.

There exist many studies where Group Meditation alters the community’s accidents or crime statistics. These studies are specially made by the Transcendental Meditation community, which is actively and profusely doing research on the subject to bring evidence of its benefits. 

To conclude, is my own belief that, at personal level, there are various ways that lead towards self-knowledge and development of self, and at global level, there are various ways that lead towards peace. But only one highway for both of them. Meditation is the highway. It has always been and despite the awesome technologic improvements, probably will always be.


Reiki Frequencies and Schumann Resonances

In the post about The Electromagnetic Human Field has been reviewed how the electric part of the human body might have an important role to play in the mechanisms of action in therapies like Acupuncture. Now we are going to explore the magnetic realm of the body, and how Reiki could be in practical terms a magnetic therapy. How does Reiki work, right? But first will be discussed how cells receive messages through specialized proteins across the cell membrane, and afterwards a selection of scientific articles regarding to Reiki are going to be discussed. It will also be reviewed some basic mechanisms of hands-on therapies (Reiki and some others), what factors might be playing, and what are the key aspects that define an optimal healing session. Finally I will expose a brief summary of what are the Schumann Resonances and a possible frequency link between these and the Reiki healer.


We are still trying to understand how energy fields can jump start the healing process in different tissues. Luckily there exist several theories. So far we know that there exists a cascade of reactions taking place from the cell surface to the cytoplasm and on to the nucleus and genes, where selective effects on the DNA have been documented. In the decade of the 90’s emerged a phenomenon called amplification, basically implying that a very tiny field or reaction can produce a large effect. It has been discovered that a single hormone molecule or neurotransmitter or a single photon of electromagnetic energy can trigger a cellular response. 

One of the key steps in the amplification process is the activation of calcium channels so that hundreds of calcium ions flood into the cell, where they activate various cellular processes involved in the repair of tissues that have been injured or diseased. There is also a lot of information regarding G-proteins, which are part of a specialized set of receptors that can trigger several metabolic responses. Alfred Gilman -along Martin Rodbell- was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1994, for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”, and in the lecture he gave at the Karolinska Institute he said: “the reason we have G-proteins is so we can build very complex signaling switchboards that have enormous adaptability, flexibility, with very complex interactions, leading to diverging, or converging results. Each cell can make a choice, design it’s highly customized switchboard, in an enormous order of possible outputs”.

Cascade of Membrane Signal Transduction

Cascade of Membrane Signal Transduction


Now, what is known is that, as shown in the image, a hormone is only the first step in a complex sequence of interactions. And, the interesting part here is, can we have effects if, instead of a hormone we apply another type of energy or frequency? Here is where energy medicine arrives, and it can be simply defined as a particular frequency (or frequencies) looking to promote repair and homeostasis of the body. This frequency can come from a healer of from a device.

A very important aspect that enery healing research has provided is that very tiny fields can produce the best effects. This is actually a profound and vital realization that has implications for every branch of medicine. It is now known that the body also emits light, sound, heat, and electromagnetic fields and, like all other matter, it has a gravitational field. Energy medicine involves understanding how the body creates and responds to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields, including light and sound as well as other forms of energy such as heat, pressure, chemical and elastic energy, and gravity. It is interesting to get to know how the body produces these different kinds of energy, and how these energies can be applied to the body for beneficial effects.


Electromagnetism can be detected for all body functions. The heart generates a signal that can be recorded by an electrocardiograph (EKG) and by magnetocardiography (MCG). Brain function can be monitored on an electroencephalograph (EEG). Magnetomyograms detect magnetic pulses when muscles contract. These are all well-established scientific facts and principles. 

Despite the fact that magnet therapy is still considered a pseudoscience, elite athletes use these devices in order to shorten their recovery period whenever they suffer an injury or even bone fracture (between many many examples are tennis player Rafa Nadal, in motorbikes Valentino Rossi and Marc Márquez, and lots of football players like the ones shown at the image)


Magnet Therapy devices on elite football players

Magnet Therapy devices on elite football players like Ever Banega (top), David Villa (bottom left) and Thiago Alcántara (bottom right)

Acupressure and shiatsu are types of therapies that use the accupoints and several specific body locations in order to maintain or restore balance through the electric body. And it’s been explained in previous posts how acupuncture might use the electric body circuits and amplifiers. Now, Reiki, Polarity Therapy, Therapeutic Touch and basically all hands-on therapies, might be more experienced on the magnetic fields that emanate from the healer’s hands and its interaction with the patient’s magnetic body.


In the early 1980’s, Dr. John Zimmerman began a series of important studies on therapeutic touch, using a SQUID magnetometer at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Denver. Click here to know what is a SQUID on Wikipedia. Zimmerman discovered that a huge pulsating biomagnetic field emanated from the hands of a Terapeutic Touch practitioner. The frequency of the pulsations is not steady, but “sweeps” up and down, from 0.3 to 30 Hz (cycles per second), with most of the activity in the range of 7-8 Hz. The biomagnetic pulsations from the hands are in the same frequency range as brain waves and scientific studies of the frequencies necessary for healing indicate that they naturally sweep back and forth through the full range of therapeutic frequencies, thus being able to stimulate healing on any tissue in the body. This study is pretty much cited by “alternative” scientists, and pretty much criticized by its detractors. As one of his critics mentions: The study was published in 1990 in the journal of the Bio-Electro-Magnetics Institute, whose founder and president just happens to be… John Zimmerman.

Zimmerman Therapeutic Touch

Emission from the hand of a therapist, mostly ranging around the 7-8 Hz level, according to Zimmerman.

But there are much more scientists that have published relevant studies. Akira Seto made a great hallmark in 1992 using two identical coils, with 80,000 turns each, not exactly a SQUID and unable to detect normal, or usual human magnetic field. What he did was a study with 37 volunteers, from which could not record or measure anything on 34 of them, but the remaining 3 had quite interesting results, curiously, the 3 of them had a relationship with Chi energy:

  1. The first subject had been interested lately in “Qi emission” as he recently started to feel a flow in his body. He has had no training or meditation whatsoever, but opening the mind to these levels of awareness is the first step to reaching them. His mean frequency ranged from 4-6 Hz.
  2. The second subject, a female Buddhist, had also been serving as a healer, her average magnetic strength was 2 mGauss and 7 Hz, temporary going to 5 Hz, and setting back at 7 Hz after 120 seconds.
  3. The third subject, an aesthetic salon consultant, which also happens to be a student of Qi Gong, her frequency was 8-10 Hz and a magnetic field amplitude of 3 mGauss.
Seto's results on 3 test subjects

Seto’s results on 3 test subjects

Seto believes this ability can be naturally given, and sometimes obtained by practice.

Most interestingly was the electromagnetic reading of the female Buddhist, several minutes after Qi emission, the magnetic emission was still being detected, and the corresponding electric current could not be found. Also, the intensity of the magnetic fields found to be 1,000 stronger than the hearts magnetic field. This is a huge number. This makes the authors believe that, although the will is completely necessary in order to radiate the extraordinary large bio-magnetic field, these extraordinary large bio-magnetic fields could never be from the internal body current alone. If so, then the term channelling is quite perfect, as it implies that the body is just a vessel for extracorporeal frequencies to flow towards the patient.

Dr. James Oschman believes that Extremely Low Frequencies (between 3-300 Hz) can stimulate tissue repair, and its in this ELF range where most of healing occurs: “the important frequencies for stimulating tissue repair are all in the biologically important ELF range”. This includes frequencies that are less than 100 Hz, it is a low energy level and extremely low frequency level. There is evidence to think that the optimal frequency also depends on the type of lesion or illness, 2 Hertz is effective for nerve regeneration, 7 Hz is adequate for bone growth, 10 Hz is used for ligaments, and somewhat higher frequencies work for skin and capillaries.

The therapeutic window seems to be delimited to low frequencies, as some people can be allergic to 50-60 Hz electromagnetic fields, feeling uncomfortable near transformers, fluorescent lights, microwave ovens and other appliances.


Now we are gonna check 7 scientific articles whose main subject is Reiki or other type or hands-on therapy, there are some reviews, which are cool for knowing the big picture so far, and also are some interesting, hallmarking, or relevant studies.

As Reiki main purpose is a general well-being and knowledge of self, it becomes more difficult to measure its effects by clinical results, in 1999 Ahlam Mansour made a pioneer study whose objective was to create the first study to test standardization procedures for real and placebo Reiki, though the number of subjects is small, and some details are into discussion, the results are quite surprising: at the 4th stage of the study: 2 out of 4 placebo subjects thought they were receiving Reiki, 3 out of 4 observers at the placebo group thought the practitioner was a real Reiki therapist. In the Reiki group, any of the subjects could tell if they were having Reiki or placebo, and 2 out of 4 observers thought it was placebo. The thing here is that the placebo practitioners were taught during 4 hours about hand positions and some Reiki theory, and its not detailed in the study, but it would be interesting to know what the placebo practitioners were thinking meanwhile the session, we know intention is very very very important, and if they were thinking of themselves as healers into a healing session, then the results could be biased, maybe its optimal to just act the healing session but not mentally participate on it.

In 2000, Diane Wardell and colleagues published maybe the most cited Reiki article so far, they were focused on testing the relaxation response during Reiki, a smart approach I think. The interesting part here is all the markers they tested, a total of 7, which are:

  1. state anxiety
  2. salivary Immunoglobin A
  3. cortisol (the stress hormone)
  4. blood pressure
  5. galvanic skin response
  6. muscle tension
  7. skin temperature


Before and after the Reiki session, significative results were taken on:

  • reduction of anxiety
  • increment of salivary IgA, which implies a relationship between Reiki and a better immunological performance
  • drop in systolic pressure

During the Reiki session, significative results were taken on:

  • skin temperature increased (remember that semiconductors are modulated by temperature, so the conductance increased as well)
  • electromyograph decreases

There are three Review Articles which are really comprehensible and analyze the efectiveness of Reiki in several studies, also discussing the pros and cons of each study and the implications. The first one was made by Pamela Miles and Gala True in 2003, and this is one article pretty much anyone can understand, it begins with its history, some theory, shows several clinics and hospitals who have incorpored Reiki as therapy, reviews other reviews, analizes 7 randomized controlled trials (RCT), including Mansour’s, and in my opinion, they nailed it when suggesting the directions of future research, I quote: future research on Reiki efficacy should identify outcomes measures, such as increased sense of spiritual well-being, self-awareness and centeredness, that are relevant to the patient’s experiences and that may have an impact on clinical outcomes.

Anne Vitale published in 2007 another interesting review, which focuses the effect of Reiki in 4 areas:

1- stress-relaxation, noting that there is a weak state of knowledge about the implications, 3 out of 5 studies had non satisfactory results, but accepts the changes in IgA and anxiety reported earlier.

2- pain, where a trend is suggesting, but not completely demostrating- that Reiki has beneficial effects

3- wound-healing, there was only one study found, in which the complicated treatment design, limited sample size and potential random errors make it suboptimal to take as a reference

4- Reiki-placebo standardization – it is recommended to add placebo standardization testing procedures like these in order to contribute to more rigorous energy work study, also, scientists analize the conflict that the interaction of placebo truly has, and question if sham Reiki is truly inert, something already stated before.

Anne Vitale's integrative review

Anne Vitale’s integrative review on Reiki

One year later, 2008, Nassim Assefi publishes an article in which there are no positive results as Reiki being effective, the thing is that its already difficult to study the probable differences between Reiki and placebo, and this study adds distant healing to the method, so mixing local and distant healing in the same study might not be the best of ideas.

The quest for an understanding of the nature of Reiki will inevitably lead to a better study of it, meanwhile, studies will not be accepted as valid by the scientific community, but we must acknowledge the difficulty of pioneering in science, and also the difficulty to interpretate something we yet dont understand completely.

Myeong Soo Lee in 2008 made a very complete review, in which he retrieved 205 potential relevant studies, from all of those, only 9 met the criteria specified, and only 2 suggested positive effects, one in the area of pain and anxiety and the other involving stress and hopelessness. Not only is important to know how to study this phenomenon, also how to interpret it, because we might not get the best answers if the questions imply strict specific medical outcomes, and this approach is not liked by modern science.

Randomised Clinical Trials about Reiki, reviewed by Lee

Randomised Clinical Trials about Reiki, reviewed by Lee

Finally, Sondra vanderVaart in 2009 made another review, obtaining a poor ranking in 11 out of 12 studies, determining more or less what we already know, that high-quality RCTs are needed.

Sondra Vandervaart's review about Reiki

Sondra Vandervaart’s review about Reiki

So far, it is evident that studying Reiki might give very diffuse results when the variable tested is a specific clinical condition, it seems to be working more on an overall situation, so it might be better to study it first in reference to the relaxation system, or if it can fasten the recovery time from any illness, or not to cross mixed therapies in the same study.

After all this information, it is possible to infer which are the mechanisms that give Reiki it’s effectiveness. We know from the Electromagnetic Human Body post that a normal chakra physiology means having a uniform, round, centered and rhythmic spin, so the most basic mechanism might be the change of frequency or rotation through field dynamics. Also, it seems that the healer does a general scan of the body with a broad set of frequencies, but ends up setting at the range between 7 and 8 Hertz. The power of acceptance and intention are key in Reiki, as in any other discipline. So, if the patient is not convinced that the treatment will be helpful then effectiveness decreases. And finally, in my experience so far, the knowledge and purity of the healer itself is also critical in order to get positive outcomes. Please note that when I refer to the knowlegde of the healer, it does not have to do with anything of this post, I think that as a healer there is no need to know scientific mechanisms of action, it has to do with their own inner knowledge of the human fields given by constant work of self and to others. All that being said, so far it is safe to asume that the patient has significative effects on the relaxation system, and increased skin conductance which may mean better body communication and development. These might be the first of many consensuated benefits of Reiki.


Now, what does Reiki has to do with the Schumann Resonances?

It took time to demonstrate the existence of an “electromagnetic wave” capable to transmit energy at the speed of 300 million m/sec, ergo, light speed. Several great minds like Ampere, Faraday, Gauss, Maxwell and Hertz collaborated into the understanding of this phenomenon, and the first one to apply this energy was Marconi, developing a radio transmitter, which, by the way, used quartz crystal into its structure, and also, around 17 patents that were used to create that radio were invented by Nicola Tesla.

The Schumann resonances are a set of spectrum peaks in the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth’s electromagnetic field spectrum. They are generated and excited by lightning discharges in the resonant cavity formed between the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere. This is important, the ionosphere acts as a low-frequency waves reflector, so the waves bounce back and forth and they superimpose between them. Their speed is light speed, so surrounding Earth at 7.8/s. The most known Schumann Resonance is its lowest frequency, also known as fundamental, and fluctuates between 7-8.5 Hz (the rest are 13.7, 19.6, 25.5, 31.4, 37.3, and 43.2 Hz). Fluctuation of these levels is completely normal, and frequencies may vary according to geographic location.

Schumann Resonances Animation

Schumann Resonances Animation
Source: NASA

The ionosphere then determines the characteristics of the resonances, whenever the ionosphere grows then the frequency drops, this natural reflector shifts through various cycles, like day/night, seasons, 11 year sun cycle, solar storms, and pretty much everything that emits the sun towards us. Solar magnetic storms can halt any Schumann frequency.

I found a couple of cool pages correlated to this, first one from NASA, in which some scientists started recording this scalar waves by the aid of a Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio receiver. They detected 3 different types of them, called sferics, tweeks and whistlers. You can go to this link, and also this one and listen to them, they are really bizarre and cool.

Secondly, this even cooler website streams -in a 30 minute delay- the lightning happening all around the planet—wow!! It shows the time it is broadcasting, the number of strokes per second, and the stroke density, among other features. I was so amazed the first time I realized this phenomena, a neverending frequency creator pulse made by the electrical discharges of the Earth, no wonder why the Schumann resonance is called the heart beat of Earth. Also, it’s kind of soothing watching all those storms happening meanwhile we take a look at the blue sky through our window.

Thunder strikes create the Schumann Resonances

The ceaseless discharge of thunder strikes create the Schumann Resonances


This being said, I would like to focus on the fact that the lowest-frequency mode of the Schumann resonance occurs at a frequency of approximately 7.83 Hz, the same frequency that was detected emitted by hands-on therapists on several studies, and here is where the human electromagnetic fields and Earth’s waves might entangle, this might be the access door where channelling occurs, this might be the extracorporeal energy Seto was talking about when saying that the extremely big bio-magnetic fields cannot be sustained just with bio-electricity.

So, due to similarities in the frequencies, do we happen to channel energy from Earth itself?

Or is it that the 7-8 Hz range is another pattern in this Universe and repeats consistently?

Or both?

Or none?

So, that is all, thanks for your interest and comments. I appreciate so much if you like and share this post through social media and your friends.

Have a great morning, day, afternoon, night! 





– Assefi, Nassim et al. “Reiki for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 14.9 (2008): 1115–1122.

– Lee, M. S., Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. (2008), Effects of reiki in clinical practice: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62: 947–954.

– Mansour A, et al. A Study to Test the Effectiveness of Placebo Reiki Standardization Procedures Developed for a Planned Reiki Efficacy Study. J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Apr;5(2):153-64.

– Miles P, True G. Reiki–Review of a Biofield Therapy: History, Theory, Practice and Research Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2003;9(2):62-72.

– Seto A, et al. Detection of extraordinary large bio-magnetic field strength from human hand during external Qi emission. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1992;17(2):75-94.

– Vitale A. An Integrative Review of Reiki Touch Therapy Research. Holist Nurs Pract. 2007 Jul-Aug;21(4):167-79.

– Wardell, D. W. and Engebretson, J. (2001), Biological correlates of Reiki Touchsm healing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33: 439–445.